14 Essential mineral elements for plants

 

 

Primary

Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium,

 

 

Secondary

Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur,

 

 

Micro

Molybdenum, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Boron, Chlorine.

 

 

 

 

 

CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS

 

 

LEAVES

INDICATE

 

 

Small terminal or tip growth ceases

Zinc deficiency

 

 

Thin and brittle

Magnesium deficiency

 

 

Mottled, blotches or necrotic areas

Zinc deficiency

 

 

Curl upward, elongation practically ceases

Iron or magnesium deficiency; insects

 

 

Curl downward

Boron deficiency; insects

 

 

Collapsed spots on young leaves

Zinc or manganese deficiency

 

 

Tips dead

Phosphorous deficiency; excess chlorine

 

 

Tips firing

Nitrogen deficiency

 

 

Color loss at tips, striping between veins

Magnesium deficiency

 

 

Tips and margins dead

Leaf burn, caused by wind, frost, excess salts or lack of water

 

 

Margin, scorched effect

Potassium deficiency

 

 

Margin, yellowing, streaks or striping

Phosphorous deficiency; excess boron

 

 

Margins, turn to brown (lower leaves first affected)

Potassium deficiency

 

 

Scalloped appearance

Calcium deficiency

 

 

Veins, yellow with pale green between veins

Nitrogen deficiency

 

 

Veins, green with yellow between (young leaves first)

Iron deficiency

 

 

Veins, green with color loss between veins

Iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum deficiencies or fungus, virus, insects, mites, low temperatures, toxic materials in air or soil, excessive water, copper, manganese or zinc

 

 

Brown spotting, grayish-brown to bronze

Magnesium deficiency

 

 

Green and white or yellow and white either mottling, ring spots or mosaic pattern over entire leaf

Virus

 

 

Abnormal dark green

Calcium deficiency

 

 

Purplish color

Phosphorous deficiency

 

 

Purplish red color

Magnesium deficiency

 

 

Blanched color

Copper deficiency

 

 

Yellow streaks on mid ribs and edges

Virus

 

 

Yellow-green overall, uniform chlorosis

Nitrogen deficiency

 

 

STEMS

INDICATE

 

 

Hard and brittle

Sulfur deficiency

 

 

Weak

Calcium or potassium deficiency

 

 

BUDS

INDICATE

 

 

Dried out and dying or absent

Calcium deficiency

 

 

Premature drop but stems are stiff and erect

Zinc or calcium deficiency

 

 

Reduced formation, necrotic at margins and tips

Zinc deficiency

 

 

Light green color

Boron deficiency

 

 

TWIGS

INDICATE

 

 

Dying back or development of brown spots

Zinc or copper deficiency

 

 

Weak or petiales develop brown spots

Magnesium deficiency

 

 

FRUIT

INDICATE

 

 

Poor development or none

Phosphorous or iron deficiency

 

 

Delayed maturity

Phosphorous deficiency

 

 

Shriveled

Potassium deficiency

 

 

Sour

Copper deficiency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contrary to popular belief, plants do not exert an enormous mineral drain upon the soil. The beneficial effects of adding mineral elements to soils to improve plant growth has been known in agriculture for more than 2,000 years. Nevertheless, even 150 years ago it was still a matter of scientific controversy as to whether mineral elements function as nutrients for plant growth.

 

Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) is credited with establishing the mineral nutrition of plants as a scientific discipline. Liebig concluded that nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium silicon, sodium and iron are essential for plant growth.

 

Arnon and Stout in 1939 proposed the term essential mineral element, the criteria to be essential are:

 

 

1) A plant must be unable to complete its life cycle in the absence of the mineral element.

 

 

2) The function of the element must not be replaceable by another mineral element.

 

 

3) The element must be directly involved in plant metabolism i.e. component of an enzyme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today the essentiality of 14 mineral elements is well established.

 

 

Primary

Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium,

 

 

Secondary

Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur,

 

 

Micro

Molybdenum, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Boron, Chlorine.

 

 

 

 

 

Plants require a small supply of at least 14 elements to maintain normal growth. If only one element is in short supply, out of balance or deficient due to poor cultivation practices, the plant can become off color, stunted or die.

 

 

 

 

 

Recognizing a mineral deficiency is easy, determining the cause is difficult Yet identification of the characteristic symptoms displayed by the deficient plant can be determined. The chart provided is intended to serve as a starting point in identifying the more common mineral element deficiencies.

 

For persistent deficiencies a laboratory soil test is recommended

 

In 1976 Grow More began offering quality fertilizers and micronutrients.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nitrogen -Blood Meal, Feather Meal, Meat & Bone Meal, Poultry Manure, Amino Acid, Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Sulfate, Urea.

 

Phosphorus - Rock Phosphate, Bone Meal, Fish Meal, Cotton Seed Meal, Ammonium Phosphate, Potassium Phosphate.

 

Potassium (Potash) - Wood Ashes, Kelp Meal, Greensand, Potassium Nitrate, Potassium Sulfate, Potassium Phosphate.

 

Calcium - Ground Oyster Shells, Limestone, Gypsum, Calcium Nitrate, Calcium EDTA Chelate, Seaweed Extract.

 

Magnesium - Dolomite Limestone, Magnesium Sulfate (Epson Salts) Magnesium Nitrate, Magnesium EDTA Chelate, Seaweed Extract.

 

Sulfur - Soil Sulfur, Ammonium Sulfate, Potassium Sulfate, Seaweed Extract.

 

Iron -      Iron EDTA or Iron EDDHA Chelate, Iron Sulfate, Blood Meal, Seaweed Extract.

 

Zinc -  Zinc EDTA Chelate, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Nitrate, Manure, Seaweed Extract.

 

Manganese - Manganese EDTA Chelate, Manganese Sulfate, Manganese Nitrate, Manure, Seaweed Extract.

 

Copper - Copper EDTA, Copper Sulfate, Manure, Seaweed Extract.

 

Molybdenum - Ammonium Molybdate, Manure, Seaweed Extract.

 

Boron -     Boric Acid, Borax, Seaweed Extract.

 

Do not over apply fertilizing materials when correcting deficiencies, several split applications spread out over several weeks are better than one large dose.

 

 

 

 

Visit www.growmore.com for more information

 

This list copied from Growmore info packet  by Frank Wagoner for use on the Orange County chapter of California Rare Fruit Growers website   WWW.OCFRUIT.COM